"These data suggest that although a ratio of dietary (n-6) to (n-3) fatty acids of 1.4:1 depresses the cell-mediated immune response and PGE2 production, it increases lipid peroxidation and lowers vitamin E concentration."
NOTE: This is why Bonnie and Clyde Pet Goods has added a nutritionally significant amount of natural source vitamin E to our Wild Omega-3 product.
"Use of antioxidants, on the other hand, may be helpful in the treatment of arthritic dogs."
NOTE: This was an in-vitro study.
"Increasing levels of dietary vitamin E in dog and cat foods caused significant increases in serum vitamin E levels compared with baseline values … normal dogs and cats experience oxidative damage and that increased dietary levels of antioxidants may decrease in vivo measures of oxidative damage."
" … dogs with OA using a supplement with a high dose of vitamin E showed a reduction in inflammation joint markers and histological expression, as well as a trend to improving signs of pain."
"Significantly higher plasma levels of vitamin E and TAC were observed in the vitamin E group than in the placebo group. CADESI-03* scores determined throughout the treatment in the vitamin E group were significantly lower than in the placebo group. The findings of this study support the supplementation of vitamin E in dogs with atopic dermatitis."
*CADESI-03: Canine Atopic Dermatitis Extent and Severity Index
"Vitamin E is a chain-breaking antioxidant that prevents the propagation of free-radical reactions … Tissues depend on plasma vitamin E levels. Vitamin E is a significant constituent of sebum and is continuously secreted for delivery to upper layers of the skin ... Vitamin E protects against UV-induced skin photodamage through a combination of antioxidant and UV-absorptive properties ... increasing amounts of dietary vitamin E in foods for dogs and cats increases serum and skin concentrations of vitamin E and decreases serum levels of some of the biomarkers associated with oxidative stress."
"In the groups given vitamin E, the recovery time was significantly shortened … These experimental results indicate that the administration of vitamin E is effective in protecting the brain from cerebral ischemia."
NOTE: The vitamin E was administered intravenously.
"Purified diets containing varying levels of vitamin E, and with and without tuna oil as a source of highly unsaturated fatty acids, were fed to cats for periods up to 13.5 months. Steatitis was observed in cats receiving diets deficient in vitamin E and containing tuna oil ... Vitamin E provided complete protection against steatitis in these experiments."